Heart diseases & Cardiovascular system

Updated: Aug 3, 2020

The primary function of the cardiovascular, also called the circulatory system, is to provide transportation of oxygen, nutrients, water, body salts, hormones, and other substances to every cell in the body. It also acts to carry waste products, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), away from the cells, eventually to be excreted. The heart functions as a pump; the blood vessels act as “pipes”; and the blood is the transportation medium. If the system does not function properly, causing oxygen or the other critical substances to be withheld from the cells, dysfunction results, and the cells (and the person) may be injured or die

The cardiovascular system does not produce any energy. You should think of you cardiovascular system as more of a delivery system your organs and your body work together to break down the foods that you eat and extract the nutrients. Once those nutrients are extracted it is then put into your bloodstream and that's when your cardiovascular system starts doing its job of delivering the nutrients to every part of your body as required.

The major functions of the cardiovascular system are:

1. Protection from infection and blood loss

Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen around the body to the tissues and organs that need it. As oxygen enters the blood stream through the alveoli of the lungs it binds to a special protein in the red blood cells called hemoglobin.

Platelets are cells which are responsible for clotting the blood, they stick to foreign particles or objects such as the edges of a cut. Platelets connect to fibrinogen (a protein which is released in the site of the cut) producing a clump that blocks the hole in the broken blood vessel. On an external wound this would become a scab. If the body has a low level of platelets then clotting may not occur and bleeding can continue. 2. The heart

The heart is a hollow muscular organ which beats over 100,000 times a day to pump blood around the body's 60,000 miles of blood vessels. The right side of the heart receives blood and sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it out to the tissues of the body. The Heart has three layers; the ENDOCARDIUM (inner layer), the EPICARDIUM (middle layer), and MYOCARDIUM (outer layer). The heart is protected by the PERICARDIUM which the protective membrane is surrounding it. The heart has FOUR CHAMBERS, in the lower heart the right and left Ventricles, and in the upper heart the right and left Atria. In a normal heart beat the atria contract while the ventricles relax, then the ventricles contract while the atria relax. There are VALVES through which blood passes between ventricle and atrium, these close in such a way that blood does not backwash during the pauses between ventricular contractions. The right and left ventricles are divided by a thick wall (the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM), babies born with "hole in the heart" have a small gap here, which is a problem since oxygenated and deoxygenated can blood mix. 3. Disease Protection and Healing

The circulatory system serves as the highway for disease-fighting cells and proteins, and messengers of the immune system. Immune system cells called white blood cells patrol the body in search of invading germs. If an infection occurs, these cells send chemical alarm signals that travel through the bloodstream, which subsequently transports infection-fighting cells to the site of the infection. 4. Body Temperature Regulation

Body temperature regulation is an often overlooked but important function of the cardiovascular system. Optimal function of the human body occurs within a relatively narrow temperature range, which is tightly regulated. If body temperature begins to rise, blood vessels close to the body surface dilate, increasing in size. This allows the body to rid itself excess heat through the skin. 5. Diminished Vital Capacity

Medline Plus includes brain stem injury among the causes of slowed breathing. The cells in the medulla monitor the concentration of carbon dioxide in the body. If levels of carbon dioxide rise, the medulla responds by increasing the activity of the motor nerves that control the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm.

What is Heart

The heart is the center of the cardiovascular system. The heart pumps blood to all the cells of the body through the blood vessels. The blood carries the oxygen that the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when the heart and blood vessels are not functioning as they should.

Here are some of the problems that accompany cardiovascular disease:

Arteriosclerosis . Also known as hardening of the arteries, in arteriosclerosis arteries thicke

What is Heart

The heart is the center of the cardiovascular system. The heart pumps blood to all the cells of the body through the blood vessels. The blood carries the oxygen that the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when the heart and blood vessels are not functioning as they should.

Here are some of the problems that accompany cardiovascular disease:

· Arteriosclerosis . Also known as hardening of the arteries, in arteriosclerosis arteries thicken and lose their flexibility.

· Atherosclerosis . The accumulation of cholesterol and fat causes the arteries to narrow, so that only a smaller amount of blood can flow through them. These deposits are known as plaque.

· Angina of the chest . People with angina have chest pain because their heart is not getting enough blood.

· Heart attack: when a blood clot or other type of obstruction interrupts blood flow to a part of the heart.

· Cerebrovascular accidents: when a part of the brain does not receive enough blood due to a clot or a rupture of a blood vessel.

· Signs of heart disease?

· Many people do not realize that they have cardiovascular disease until they have chest pain, a heart attack or a stroke.

· These types of problems often require immediate attention and the person should go to a hospital emergency room.

· If it is not an emergency and the doctor suspects that a patient of yours might have cardiovascular disease, you can ask for several tests to find out how the heart and blood vessels are working.

tests are:

· The electrocardiogram . This test records the electrical activity of the heart. The doctor connects the patient to a machine and observes the monitor to see the heartbeat and determine if it is normal.

· Echocardiogram . This test uses sound waves to diagnose cardiac problems. The waves bounce off the heart and create an image of it that is displayed on a monitor.

· The effort test . For this test, the person exercises while the doctor looks at their electrocardiogram to see how their heart muscle reacts.

· Catheterization . In this test, a long, thin tube is inserted into the patient's body to inject a special dye, which can show narrowed areas in the arteries due to plaque buildup and other problems.

· Ultrasound of the carotid artery . In this test, sound waves are used to detect the presence of blockages in the carotid artery, a large blood vessel in the neck that supplies blood to the brain.


If a patient has cardiovascular disease, your doctor will talk with him about how behaviors such as quitting smoking, losing weight, eating a healthy diet, and exercising can help.

Also, it may be necessary for the patient to take medication, undergo an operation, or both at the same time.

There are different types of operations of the heart and blood vessels. Among them, the following are included:

· Angioplasty . This operation opens (by dilatation) a blocked blood vessel by introducing a device similar to a balloon at the narrowest point of an artery. The doctor may also introduce a stent (or cardiovascular stent), which is a tiny stainless steel tube that keeps the cup open and ensures it stays that way.

· Atherectomy . It involves removing the plaque from an artery, so that the blood can flow freely.

· Coronary bypass surgery (or bypass). It involves using a part of an artery or vein from another part of the body (such as the arm or leg) to channel blood flow around an obstructed arterial area.

· The pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small electronic device that is placed inside the patient's body to regulate their heartbeat.

· The valve replacement . If a heart valve is damaged or does not work, the surgeon can replace it with another.

· Carotid endarterectomy . During this procedure, the surgeon removes deposits of plaque from the carotid artery to prevent cerebrovascular accidents.

If someone you know is going to undergo one of these operations, it is very possible that you are worried.

The good news is that these operations can help prevent heart attacks, strokes and other problems.

The amount of time the person will need to spend in the hospital will vary, depending on the operation to which they are submitted and their health status before the operation.

It is possible that the person feels exhausted and without strength after the operation, but you can help by making a card to improve and visit it.

Children and heart disease?

Children do not usually have symptoms of heart or blood vessel problems. But by developing healthy habits for the heart from now on, children can reduce their chances of having to worry about cardiovascular disease for the future.

What are the causes of heart disease?

Heart disease is a sudden illness. Many people die every day because of a heart attack. In order to help the majority of friends to further understand the knowledge of heart disease, the following is a list of several common causes of heart disease in life.

1. High cholesterol: The chance of suffering from heart disease is three times higher than ordinary people. Because too much cholesterol in the body will accumulate in the blood vessels, making the blood vessels narrower and obstructing blood circulation;

2, Smoking: smokers are two and a half times more likely than ordinary people, because the nicotine in cigarettes or chemicals in tobacco can damage the blood vessels of the heart, if the blood vessels crack, cholesterol will accumulate.

3, High blood pressure: two and a half times more than the opportunity of ordinary people, high blood pressure will cause vasoconstriction.

4, Obesity: because obesity will cause high blood pressure, high blood lipids and diabetes. These diseases can cause heart disease.

5, Tension in life: tension in life causes arrhythmia, endocrine disorders, affects heartbeat, stimulates heart attack. Heart continuously pumps blood through the circulatory system. The heart jumps an average of 100,000 times a day, pumping about two thousand gallons of blood back and forth in the human body. If you calculate the life of 70 years old, your heart rate can reach 2.5 billion times.

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